Blasphemy law in Islam

It is one thing to follow a moderate, watered-down version of islam via cherry picking and reinterpretation, it is totally another thing to outright deny the existence of blasphemy laws in Islamic sharia. There are several examples of executions for blasphemy, both state ordered and vigilante, during the life of the Prophet Muhammad.

Imam Ibn Taymiyyah has written a whole book on the subject, called: "The Drawn Sword upon the one who Curses the Messenger."

I can suggest a lecture/pamphlet in English that gathers all the evidences, it was written by Sheikh Anwar al-Awlaqi, called, "The Dust will Never Settle Down" (pdf file)

Let me give you an authentic example from the aforementioned pamphlet:

A blind man had a slave-mother who used to abuse the Prophet (pbuh) and disparage him. He forbade her but she did not stop. He rebuked her but she did not give up her habit.

One night she began to slander the Prophet and abuse him. So he took a dagger, placed it on her belly, pressed it, and killed her. A child who came between her legs was smeared with the blood that was there.

When the morning came, the Prophet (pbuh) was informed about it. He assembled the people and said: I adjure by Allah the man who has done this action and I adjure him by my right to him that he should stand up. Jumping over the necks of the people and trembling the man stood up.

He sat before the Prophet (pbuh) and said: Apostle of Allah! I am her master; she used to abuse you and disparage you. I forbade her, but she did not stop, and I rebuked her, but she did not abandon her habit. I have two sons like pearls from her, and she was my companion. Last night she began to abuse and disparage you. So I took a dagger, put it on her belly and pressed it till I killed her.

There upon the Prophet (pbuh) said: Oh be witness, no retaliation is payable for her blood.

The Hadith was narrated by Abdullah Ibn Abbas and can be found in Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 38, Hadith Number 4348 which has been authenticated by the scholars.

Another book called "Healing by news of the choosen one", which was authored by Qadi Ayyad Ibn Musa details punishment for blasphemy in Part 4 : The Judgements concerning those who think the Prophet imperfect or curse him.

For the legal rulings (fatwa), see also:

* Ruling on the one who insults the Prophet Muhammad.

* Ruling on one who tells lies about the Prophet Muhammad.
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Quran chapter 3, verse 56

Disbelievers will be severely punished in this world. Allah says in Quran 3:56,

And as for those who disbelieved, I will punish them with a severe punishment in this world and the Hereafter, and they will have no helpers

Let's see what the punishment is for the Disbelievers who disbelieved in Allah and prophet Muhammad. Below are the classical scholary exegesis of the above verse.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:

This is what Allah did to the Jews who disbelieved in Isa and the Christians who went to the extreme over him. Allah tormented them in this life; they were killed, captured, and lost their wealth and kingdoms. Their torment in the Hereafter is even worse and more severe

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

As for the disbelievers, I will chastise them with a terrible chastisement in this world, through being killed, taken captive and made to pay the jizya, and the Hereafter, in the Fire; they shall haveno helpers, none to protect them from it.

Tafsir Ibn Abbas

(As for those who disbelieve) in Allah and in His messengers Muhammad and Jesus (I shall chastise them with a heavy chastisement in the world) by exposing them to the sword and the capitation tax (jizyah) (and the Hereafter) by throwing them into the Fire; (and they will have no helpers) to save them from Allah's punishment in this world or in the Hereafter.
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Cosmological Criticism: Part 3

This is part of a sequence on Cosmological argument.

The 2nd premise of Modal Cosmological argument is an argument from Contingency. It states that the Universe is contingent.

Fallacy of Composition: Even if we agree that all parts of the Universe is contingent, that doesn't mean Universe as a whole is contingent. It's possible for the necessary universe to be composed entirely of contingent parts.

Counter argument: If the Universe is non-contingent, then Universe either necessarily exist or impossible to exist. But the Universe exists. Which means Universe necessarily exists.

Which means it's impossible for the Universe not to exist. To say that Universe's existence is necessary is to say that its non-existence is impossible. If we can produce a logical contradiction then this impossibility will be easily recognized. For example: a square-circle is impossible because it's self-contradictory.

Considering the Universe to be the whole of existence, the analytic truth[1a] is: [Nothing] doesn't have the property of existence. It's impossible for [Nothing] to exist. Therefore, there must necessarily exist something. Therefore it's impossible for something (universe) not to exist. Therefore Universe necessarily exist.

Universe is not contingent.
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Monogamy better than Polygamy for society

Monogamy reduces major social problems of polygamist cultures

In cultures that permit men to take multiple wives, the intra-sexual competition that occurs causes greater levels of crime, violence, poverty and gender inequality than in societies that institutionalized and practice monogamous marriage.

Why We Think Monogamy Is Normal?
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Rape in Islamic sharia is equivalent with that of a Highway robbery. Hudud punishments are those punishments which are specified in Quran and Hadith. It needs 4 adult, male witnesses OR confession of the criminal to deliver prescribed Hudud punishment for adultery, rape, robbery etc. That's the Islamic Sharia.

Sahih Bukhari, Vol 8, Book 82, Hadith 816, Narrated Ibn Abbas,

Umar said, "I am afraid that after a long time has passed, people may say, "We do not find the Verses of the Rajam (stoning to death) in the Holy Book," and consequently they may go astray by leaving an obligation that Allah has revealed. Lo! I confirm that the penalty of Rajam be inflicted on him who commits illegal sexual intercourse, if he is already married and the crime is proved by witnesses or pregnancy or confession."

Sufyan added, "I have memorized this narration in this way." Umar added, "Surely Allah's Apostle carried out the penalty of Rajam, and so did we after him."

Therefore, according to this divine law, Hudud punishment for rape which is death penalty could only be given in two cases:

1. Confession by the rapist, or

2. Testimony of 4 (adult, male) witnesses.

A raped woman's accusation on another person is simply not enough. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 40, (Chapter: Regarding one deserving of the punishment coming to confess) Hadith 29, we read: Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr:

When a woman went out in the time of the Prophet (pbuh) for prayer, a man attacked her and overpowered (raped) her. She shouted and he went off, and when a man came by, she said: That (man) did such and such to me. And when a company of the Emigrants came by, she said: That man did such and such to me.

They went and seized the man whom they thought had had intercourse withher and brought him to her. She said: Yes, this is he. Then they brought him to the Apostle of Allah (pbuh).

When he (the Prophet) was about to pass sentence, the man who (actually) had assaulted her stood up and said: Apostle of Allah, I am the man who did it to her. He (the Prophet) said to her: Go away, for Allah has forgiven you. But he told the man some good words (AbuDawud said: meaning the man who was seized), and of the man who had had intercourse with her, he said: Stone him to death.
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