Cosmological Criticism: Part 3

This is part of a sequence on Cosmological argument.

The 2nd premise of Modal Cosmological argument is an argument from Contingency. It states that the Universe is contingent.

Fallacy of Composition: Even if we agree that all parts of the Universe is contingent, that doesn't mean Universe as a whole is contingent. It's possible for the necessary universe to be composed entirely of contingent parts.

Counter argument: If the Universe is non-contingent, then Universe either necessarily exist or impossible to exist. But the Universe exists. Which means Universe necessarily exists.

Which means it's impossible for the Universe not to exist. To say that Universe's existence is necessary is to say that its non-existence is impossible. If we can produce a logical contradiction then this impossibility will be easily recognized. For example: a square-circle is impossible because it's self-contradictory.

Considering the Universe to be the whole of existence, the analytic truth[1a] is: [Nothing] doesn't have the property of existence. It's impossible for [Nothing] to exist. Therefore, there must necessarily exist something. Therefore it's impossible for something (universe) not to exist. Therefore Universe necessarily exist.

Universe is not contingent.
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Monogamy better than Polygamy for society

Monogamy reduces major social problems of polygamist cultures

In cultures that permit men to take multiple wives, the intra-sexual competition that occurs causes greater levels of crime, violence, poverty and gender inequality than in societies that institutionalized and practice monogamous marriage.

Why We Think Monogamy Is Normal?
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Rape in Islamic sharia is equivalent with that of a Highway robbery. Hudud punishments are those punishments which are specified in Quran and Hadith. It needs 4 adult, male witnesses OR confession of the criminal to deliver prescribed Hudud punishment for adultery, rape, robbery etc. That's the Islamic Sharia.

Sahih Bukhari, Vol 8, Book 82, Hadith 816, Narrated Ibn Abbas,

Umar said, "I am afraid that after a long time has passed, people may say, "We do not find the Verses of the Rajam (stoning to death) in the Holy Book," and consequently they may go astray by leaving an obligation that Allah has revealed. Lo! I confirm that the penalty of Rajam be inflicted on him who commits illegal sexual intercourse, if he is already married and the crime is proved by witnesses or pregnancy or confession."

Sufyan added, "I have memorized this narration in this way." Umar added, "Surely Allah's Apostle carried out the penalty of Rajam, and so did we after him."


Therefore, according to this divine law, Hudud punishment for rape which is death penalty could only be given in two cases:

1. Confession by the rapist, or

2. Testimony of 4 (adult, male) witnesses.

A raped woman's accusation on another person is simply not enough. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 40, (Chapter: Regarding one deserving of the punishment coming to confess) Hadith 29, we read: Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr:

When a woman went out in the time of the Prophet (pbuh) for prayer, a man attacked her and overpowered (raped) her. She shouted and he went off, and when a man came by, she said: That (man) did such and such to me. And when a company of the Emigrants came by, she said: That man did such and such to me.

They went and seized the man whom they thought had had intercourse withher and brought him to her. She said: Yes, this is he. Then they brought him to the Apostle of Allah (pbuh).

When he (the Prophet) was about to pass sentence, the man who (actually) had assaulted her stood up and said: Apostle of Allah, I am the man who did it to her. He (the Prophet) said to her: Go away, for Allah has forgiven you. But he told the man some good words (AbuDawud said: meaning the man who was seized), and of the man who had had intercourse with her, he said: Stone him to death.
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